Volume 2: 1771 Edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica!
Dominicans, an order of religious, called in France Jacobins, and in England Black friers, or preaching-friers. This order founded by St. Dominic, a native of Spain, was approved of by Innocent III. in 1215, and confirmed by a bull of Honorius III. in 1216. The design of their institution was to preach the gospel, convert heretics, defend the faith, and propagate Christianity. They embraced the rule of St. Augustine, to which they added statutes and constitutions, which had formerly been observed either by the Carthusian or Praemonstratenses. The principal articles enjoined perpetual silence, abstinence from flesh at all times, wearing of woollen, rigorous poverty, and several other austerities. This order has spread into all the parts of the world. It has produced a great number of martyrs, confessors, bishops; and they reckon three popes, sixty cardinals, 150 archbishops, and 800 bishops of their order, besides the masters of the sacred palace, who have always been Dominicans. They are inquisitors in many places.